Greece, is the southernmost country on the European mainland. With an area of 131.940 square kilometres, Greece is about the same size as England or New York state. Greece's longest border is with the sea. Over 2,000 Greek islands are scattered about the eastern Mediterranean, roughly 200 of them inhabited. The Greek mainland shares land borders with Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Bulgaria and Turkey.

The climate is mostly dry and temperate, though it snows in the mountains and in the north. The mild weather and sheltered valleys of the region, along with the early development of seafaring, contributed to the rise of Ancient Greek Civilisation.

Athens, most powerful of the ancient Greek city-states, was the world's first democracy. Nearly 40% of the country's population resides in the capital, the country's largest city and most important commercial centre.